It may have taken 167 years. But consider the irony of today’s celebration of Singles Day, when “Alibaba and other Chinese e-commerce companies hosted the world’s biggest one-day shopping spree,” which amounted to more than $14 billion in sales for Alibaba alone, in light of one of the claims made in what is now regarded as the second most important academic book:
The bourgeoisie, by the rapid improvement of all instruments of production, by the immensely facilitated means of communication, draws all, even the most barbarian, nations into civilisation. The cheap prices of commodities are the heavy artillery with which it batters down all Chinese walls, with which it forces the barbarians’ intensely obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate. It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilisation into their midst, i.e., to become bourgeois themselves. In one word, it creates a world after its own image.