Capitalism has, from the very beginning, generated movements of masses of people, both within and between nations. On one hand, the development of capitalism has disrupted and in many cases destroyed other modes of production and ways of life, and forced workers to have the freedom to sell their ability to work elsewhere—sometimes within their home countries (e.g., by moving from the countryside into small towns and large cities), often in other countries (when, of course, it was possible to assemble the finances to make the journey). On the other hand, the emergence and growth of capitalist enterprises have created the means to hire a larger and larger labor force—a demand that has been met by a changing combination of native-born and immigrant workers. Capitalism, in this sense, has demonstrated its own laws of population, including national and international migration.
And, as people have moved, shouldering the costs of their migrations across regions and national boundaries has been as unevenly distributed as the actual wealth those workers eventually created. It should come as no surprise, therefore, that across the history of capitalism the resulting large-scale movements of people have erupted in intense debates and battles over their effects.
The United States, of course, is no exception to these movements and controversies. The development of capitalism within U.S. borders, as well as the transformations it has simultaneously induced in other territories and countries (within the Americas and across the globe), have had the effect of creating both a mass of people who have no alternative but to sell their ability to work to someone else and a much smaller group of employers who have the capacity and interest to hire them. The result has been an ever-changing demography within the United States—as people of different ethnicities, races, and nationalities have been induced to move between regions and from other countries—as well as sporadic but intense debates about the consequences and costs of that ever-changing “melting-pot.”
That debate has, once again, erupted in the United States, in the midst of the current presidential campaign. While the terms of the debate are often couched (and thus mishandled and manipulated) in other terms, Americans are once again attempting to come to grips with the effects of the history of capitalism’s laws of population, which first concentrated and then abandoned generations of migrant workers in some regions and cities (especially in the now-deindustrialized Midwest), while simultaneously creating the conditions for the immigration of masses of people to work on the industrial farms and increasingly across the economy, from construction to services (everywhere else, both North and South).
Since Americans are encouraged to overlook the actual causes of migration and, in addition, to treat the two—internal and external—migrations as separate, independent processes, they end up concentrating only on the consequences of immigration (and, even then, on only some of the consequences). And that’s exactly the focus of the new study, “The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration,” by the Panel on the Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
I plan to discuss the Panel’s major findings in a separate post tomorrow.